Content Learning through Digital Media, Oral Language and Shared Writing

We Can Say It, We Can Write It, We Can Read It Play Presentation
karen Dance

Karen Dance

I have been a K-8 Literacy teacher, taught Gr. 1-3, Reading Recovery, and am currently back in the classroom in Grade 1. My interests include skiing, gardening, reading, and doing DIY decorator projects.

Table of Contents

Overview

Grade 1 students use digital photos and oral conversation to create digital books through the shared writing approach, using an interactive whiteboard (e.g. Smart Board).

The series of lessons outlines the process of creating student-friendly text by using oral language in conjunction with digital photos (PDF) taken during capacity activities. This co-creation of content text helps students learn the measurement concept of capacity.

Text is recorded using an interactive whiteboard to produce a book in digital form for reading and re-reading. This project supports several intelligence modes, including kinesthetic and interpersonal learners.

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Purpose of Learning Object

Students will …

  • be actively involved in capacity activities.
  • engage in conversation about the photos of themselves at the activities.
  • articulate their understanding of capacity, using the photos as links to their understanding.
  • record text that supports the activity and the concept of capacity.
  • read and re-read the text that is created.

The re-visiting of text is intended to consolidate knowledge and understanding of capacity and its related expectations.

Text is framed in students’ oral language (using their words and structures), making it more accessible and easier for them to articulate the concept of capacity.

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Description of Learning Tasks

The culminating task is a digital book that is created from oral conversation, using the shared writing approach.

  • As a class, students create text for a digital book of photos taken during capacity activities.
  • The photos are arranged in a logical sequence by the teacher to reflect the activities and the concept of capacity.
  • Students use their oral language, supported by the teacher, to create text in Smart Notebook on the Smart Board. The text should explain capacity in reference to the photos, and describe student activities at the capacity stations.
  • The digital book is read as shared reading on the Smart Board and the concepts are reviewed in a class discussion. Individual copies are printed for independent reading.
  • As an additional task, students could create their own book using digital photos of similar capacity activities. With the photos as a guide, students write the text independently to explain capacity and how they know. This demonstrates understanding of the concept with different materials such as sand versus water, etc.

For sharing with parents:

  • Save as a Publisher or Word document for emailing to parents for reading at home.
  • Post to a Moodle for parents to view and read with their children.

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Curriculum Connections

Curriculum Connections-Grade 1

The main expectation addressed is in the Math-Measurement Strand. Additional measurement expectations are provided for Grades 2 and 3.

Gr. 1 Measurement OE: compare, describe, and order objects using attributes measured in non- standard units.

SE: estimate, measure and describe the capacity of an object through investigation using non-standard units.

SE: compare two or three objects using measurable attributes (e.g. capacity) and describe the objects using relative terms (bigger).

Curriculum Connections-Grade 2

Gr. 2 Measurement OE: estimate, measure, and record length, perimeter, area, mass, capacity, time, and temperature using non-standard units and standard units.

SE: estimate, measure and describe the capacity of an object using a variety of non-standard units.

Curriculum Connections-Grade 3

Gr. 3 Measurement OE: estimate, measure, and record length, perimeter, area, mass, capacity, time, and temperature using standard units.

SE: estimate, measure, and record the capacity of containers (e.g. juice can, milk bag) using the standard unit of the litre or parts of a litre (e.g. half, quarter).

Related Expectations (listed for Grade 1 only)

1 Oral Communication OE2: use speaking skills and strategies appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

Grade 1 SE 2.3: communicate ideas and information orally in a clear, coherent manner.

Writing OE 1: generate, gather, and organize ideas and information to write for an intended purpose and audience.

Grade 1 SE 1.4: sort ideas and information for their writing in a variety of ways, with support and direction (using pictures, graphics etc)

Writing OE 2: draft and revise their writing, using a variety of informational, literary, and graphic form and stylistic elements appropriate for the purpose and audience.

Grade 1 Writing SE 2.1: write short texts using a few simple forms.

Reading OE2: recognize a variety of text forms, text features, and stylistic elements and demonstrate understanding of how they communicate meaning

Grade 1 SE 2.3: identify text features (photographs) and explain how they help them understand texts.

Media Literacy OE3: create a variety of media texts for different purposes and audiences, using appropriate forms, conventions, and techniques.

Grade 1 SE 3.1: identify the topic, purpose, and audience for media texts they plan to create.

Grade 1 SE 3.4: produce some short media texts for specific purposes and audiences, using a few simple media forms and techniques.

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Required Technology

This project requires the following technology software and /or equipment:

  • digital camera;
  • USB cable for downloading photos;
  • Smart Board (if using Smart Notebook Software);
  • Screen and LCD projector connected to computer; and
  • Smart Notebook Software or Windows Publisher or Word.

Skill Levels

Teacher

  • Proficient at taking, downloading, and inserting photos into desired program file;
  • Familiarity with LCD projector; and
  • Familiarity with the Smart Board and use of pens to record the shared text.

Student

  • Familiarity with Smart Board technology and the use of pens to record shared text; and
  • Familiarity with Smart Board technology for changing pages of digital book when reading.

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Assessment

Diagnostic Goal and Assessment

Discover what is known about capacity and why certain containers might be used instead of others to hold amounts of liquid or material.

**You may wish to do any 2 of the following:

a) Conference with students (1:1 or in small groups of 3 or 4) about their understanding of what capacity is, and how to measure it.

b) Use conference template (see Capacity Assessment Template (PDF)). Student records their self-assessment by circling the appropriate face, as well as communicating an oral explanation for questions 2, 3 and 4.

“Circle the face that shows how much you know about each question.” (Repeat this phrase for each question to ensure understanding of the task.)

Questions:

  1. What is capacity?
  2. Can you find out how much water a bucket will hold? (Show a bucket)
  3. Can you tell which container (show 3 or 4 containers) holds the most? The least?
  4. Do you know how you could find out?

Additional probing questions for clarity:

For #2: What would you do to find out how much water a bucket would hold?

For # 3: How do you know this container holds the most? How can you tell?

For # 4: Tell me what you would do to see which container holds the most?

c) Fist of 5 (PDF): Show the number of fingers with one being the lowest and five the highest.

Questions

  1. Do you know what capacity is?
  2. How would you find out how much water 2 or 3 different containers hold?

Fist of 5

5 fingers – I know it so well I could explain it to anybody.

4 fingers – I can do it alone.

3 fingers – I need some help.

2 fingers – I could use more practice.

1 finger – I’m only beginning.

Count the corresponding responses from the group.

Draw and share: Have students draw a container that is used at their home and orally share in the large group the reason why it works for its purpose, how much it holds (size, how its material helps it hold liquid etc. This connects to the science unit on Matter and Materials.)

Can they tell how much capacity it has?

Formative Assessment

Students are observed at the capacity stations (water and sand) and their comments and/or observations are recorded on a tracking page as an indicator of their understanding. (See Capacity of Containers (PDF)). Feedback is given at the stations as needed. Phrases from oral conversation between student/student and teacher/student are recorded for the writing stage of the book.

The ability of students to read and state the facts and properties of capacity in the digital book in a reading conference is a measure of their understanding of capacity. The conference template is used again as a summative piece of assessment, along with Fist of 5 and oral answer to the questions number 3 and 4:

  1. Can you tell which container (show 3 or 4 containers) holds the most? The least?
  2. Do you know how you could find out?

Peer Assessment

As this project relies on student conversation as a measure of understanding, peers could use the “Faces” or “Fist of Five” when giving feedback.

Further Culminating Task

Students will be digitally photographed while engaged in further capacity activities. Photos will be printed and students will write their own draft of a page for a capacity book that explains how to estimate, measure, and record capacity, as well as compare items for relative size.

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Scope and Sequence

For the purposes of this project, oral language, shared writing, interactive writing, and shared reading are defined as follows:

Oral Language

Through oral language activities, students learn the language system and use it to understand and express ideas and information, to interpret the ideas of others, and to give and follow directions…Talk supports the thinking process. By providing opportunities for oral language development, teachers encourage students to develop higher-order thinking skills.

The Guide to Effective Instruction in Reading K-3 2003

Shared Writing

Shared writing allows students and teachers to work together on a piece of writing. The teacher is the scribe, and the students and the teacher collaborate to create the text.

The Guide to Effective Instruction in Reading K-3 2003

Interactive Writing

Interactive writing is an instructional approach in which the students and teacher share the task of scribing the message. This approach is especially helpful to reluctant writers, as it guides and encourages them to become independent writers.

The Guide to Effective Instruction in Reading K-3 2003

Shared Reading

During shared reading, the teacher provides instruction to the whole class by reading a text that all students can see, using an overhead, a big book, a chart, or a poster. The teacher reads the text to the students, inviting them to join in at key instructional moments. The same text can be revisited several times for a variety of instructional purposes.

The Guide to Effective Instruction in Reading K-3 2003

Length of project

This project, including the hands-on station activity work, takes approximately two to three weeks of 40- minute lessons. It is suggested that it be completed in Term 3 to allow for development of the concept of decentering, the taking into account of the multiple aspects of solving a problem, e.g. comparing sizes of containers.

As the project involves the process of shared writing, some of the latter sessions may be addressed in a writing period within the literacy block.

Week 1

Diagnostic Goal

To discover what is known about capacity and why certain containers might be used instead of others, as well as how capacity might be checked for the container’s purpose. See Diagnostic Assessment, Template 6 (PDF)(Circle Faces and Oral Conference, Fist of 5 self assessment, Draw and Share)

Model/Demonstrate the Lesson

Model the use of various objects in the sand and water stations by filling containers with the contents of other containers to explore the concept of capacity.

Use Think Aloud approach to pose questions about containers and how to fill, count and dump contents, filling amounts, etc.

Model several activity-based questions as well as students’ own questions. For example, “How many of the small cups of sand will fill this large tub?” and, “How many of the green containers of sand will fill the same tub?”

Individual students model for the class how to use materials. The teacher encourages them to share their wonder about what they want to explore. Model the proper clean up of materials.

Take digital photos of the modeling lessons for posting at the stations. Students refer to the photos for filling and dumping the containers of sand and water, and for clean-up.

Guided Practice

  • Take photos of groups working at sand and water capacity activities (filling, pouring, counting).
  • Provide assessment feedback as needed re: filling containers equally, ordering containers, etc.
  • Students model aspects of the concept at the sand and water stations, and provide explanation to their small groups as needed for the exploration tasks.
  • Take digital photos during the guided practice sessions for posting. Other students will be engaged at additional Math stations (see below) and will rotate through both sand and water capacity stations over the next few days.

Week 1 Math Stations

Rotate stations about every 15 minutes. Station activities depend on the strands of math that are appropriate for independent practice. Examples are provided below:

  1. Symmetry – Find pictures of objects in catalogues and magazines that show symmetry.
  2. Mass of objects – Explore finding the mass of objects using non-standard units (multi-link blocks).
  3. Measurement using metres – Measure a table’s length using a metre stick, popsicle sticks, and straws. Record the measurements. Students share with teacher why results are different (different sizes of measuring units are related to the number of units needed to measure the object).
  4. Area – Cover pre-drawn surface card shapes using non-standard units (multi-link blocks).

Week 2

Independent Practice

Model the recording of estimates in chart form for the challenges. Use students to model expectations related to the concept (e.g. estimating, charting or graphing results, or other related expectations in other math or language strands) at the stations.

Post capacity challenges related to the use of the materials at the sand and water stations.

Take digital photos of students engaged in specific capacity challenges (estimating capacity, filling, recording, ordering containers from smallest to largest based on capacity).

Engage students in conversation about their understanding and discoveries about the containers utilizing capacity vocabulary in the conversation.

Record conversations between students and between students and teacher for writing stage.

Week 2 Math Stations

  1. Symmetry – Complete the drawing of a ladybug so that it is symmetrical.
  2. Mass – Estimate and record the mass of three different bags of grains (rice, sunflower seeds, pasta).
  3. Fractions/Probability – Colour and cut out a pizza where one kind of topping is on one half of the pizza, and another topping is on the other half. Pizzas will be used for both fraction lessons and probability lessons as spinners.
  4. Area – Cover pre-drawn surface card shapes using non-standard units (multi-link blocks).

Problem Solving

Pose a capacity problem related to an actual classroom situation that needs to be solved (e.g., How many containers of juice will we need to buy to give everyone one cup of juice for our Friendship Celebration?).

Small groups work together to chart possible solutions. Experience with problem solving models and cooperative groups would be a prerequisite for this step.

Decide on a solution and carry out the plan together as a class. Take digital photos to record the steps along the way to solve the problem.

Week 3

Shared and Interactive Writing

Upload selected photos into a Smart Notebook file. Use the Smart Board to display the file of photos.

As a class, revisit the oral conversations that took place during the tasks. Generate additional conversation about the tasks and the concept of capacity, including the problem solving session. Refer back to anecdotal notes of conversations during the station work.

Through the shared writing and interactive writing approaches, use oral talk to create text for photos that describes students’ learning and understanding of capacity, as well as the solution to the class problem (containers of juice). Text will be created by teacher and students using the Smart Board technology. Reread and revise text as needed.

Use the created text for shared reading over several days, focusing on different aspects of the text and language foci related to the current term’s expectations.

Set up the finished digital book as part of the non-fiction reading station at the Smart Board for students to revisit and reread independently.

Publish the text as hard copy to be used by students for independent reading and in discussions with their parents, further supporting student understanding and explanation of what capacity is and how it can be measured and checked with non-standard units.

Downloads:

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Accommodations or Modifications

This project is designed for whole class participation. Accommodations can be made for at-risk students within the whole class by:

  • Using their strengths in oral discussion, having them provide the bulk of oral text to be recorded by them and their peers;
  • Using their strength in writing personally significant words and high frequency words that are required for the digital book;
  • Chunking sessions for writing so that sessions are not extended beyond what students can focus on; and
  • Work with one small group (three to five students) at a time to create text for pages, reading and re-reading text to the whole class.

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Differentiation

To differentiate the project for at-risk students or for students requiring enrichment, the following could be implemented:

  • Create a simpler text with at-risk students with the same or related photos, using their oral language and description of the learning taking place. (Differentiate Product)
  • Create the simpler text with at-risk students over more, rather than fewer, sessions as well as only using the interactive writing approach or only teacher scribing. (Differentiate Process)
  • For at-risk students, simplify the content by using their thinking and oral conversation coupled with patterned language to create more patterned text with known high frequency words. (Differentiate Content)
  • For enrichment students, pose additional capacity challenges for them to consider, discuss, and then create additional pages of text for a different version of the text. (Differentiate Content)
  • For enrichment, give students particular photos from the book-in-progress in hard copy to engage in their own conversation, then cooperatively decide on the text and write it, with the intention of inserting it back into the digital book. (Differentiate Process)
  • For enrichment, have selected students work as a group or as individuals to create their own digital books using the same photos with the Smart board or computer. (Differentiate Process)

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Research Base

Literacy Numeracy Secretariat and Self Identification Oral Language Project (LNS/SIP) from http://www.noelonline.ca/resources/SIP2007-08Report.pdf

Carmel Crevola and Peter Hill, (2008)

Carmel Crevola says that if you can think it, it can be said. If it can be said, it can be written, and if it can be written, it can be read.

Crevola is a leading educator, international consultant, and researcher from New Zealand who has been studying oral language for over 10 years, and has worked in several countries, spearheading research initiatives that place oral language at the forefront of literacy learning.

This report shows the connection between a child’s oral language and involvement in oral conversation as indicators of success in reading ability. Even though the study mainly focuses on the differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, all students’ oral language scores improved over the year after being involved in conversational groups with teacher support.

Creyola’s research supports the importance of developing children’s thinking and understanding by developing their conversation. This makes so much sense with the math stations because when students talk together to give instructions or ask questions about the capacity tasks, they are developing understanding. Talking with students as they learn instead of at them helps develop understanding. Writing their thinking and “talking” down so it can be read further supports that understanding.

This is how oral language is developed to support literacy learning at the same time as mathematical learning.

Learning about language: Written conversations and elementary language learners

Katie Van Sluys and Tasha Tropp Laman, The Reading Teacher 60:3, pp.222-233. (2006)

“Constructing complex effective language learning environments entails creating diverse opportunities to engage students in authentic language use and language learning.” (Van Sluys, and Tropp-Laman, p.224)

This article looks at how students learn through talking.

The authors found students learn from each other through conversation written in note form about various aspects of writing. Talking was the context for learning. Van Sluys and Laman stress the importance of embedding authentic language experiences in literacy practices.

Connecting the math concept of capacity with conversation and activity naturally lead my students to learn because they needed to talk together to fill containers, make decisions about counting the filled containers, as well as agree on the accuracy of what they were doing. The activities were engaging, and fun; talk happened naturally to help develop the skills needed to complete the tasks.

Adding the technology piece continued to engage my students and provided “grist” for conversations that solidified their content learning.

Adapting a Model for Literacy Learning to the Learning of Mathematics

Martha H. Hopkins, Reading & Writing Quarterly (23: pp. 121-138). (2007)

The author of this article examines Brian Cambourne’s questions about what conditions are present when children learn language, and how these conditions might support them in acquiring literacy as well as math understanding.

Conditions include immersion, demonstration, engagement, expectations, responsibility, approximation, use, and response. Hopkins compares these conditions to learning language and learning math. Ideally, teachers would immerse students in the vocabulary of math, provide demonstrations in a supportive, language-based environment, provide engaging tasks and respond to students’ approximations respectfully in learning math concepts.

Hopkins says that for students to fully develop literacy understanding, teachers need to create environments with these conditions where students have unlimited opportunities to use them for authentic purposes other than as Cambourne indicates, simply to learn them. The same holds true for math; students should have the desire to do math for purposes other than simply to learn mathematical skills.

In my classroom, children were involved in tasks that seemed like play, but they had an authentic problem to solve as they were learning about how to measure juice containers in order to know how much juice we needed for the whole class. This task made clear how using a problem solving model links authentic purpose to the curriculum. The conditions present themselves when you are solving an authentic problem.

The World of Digital Storytelling

Jason Ohler, Educational Leadership (p. 44-47) (December 2005/January 2006)

“Through creating electronic personal narratives, students become active creators rather than passive consumers, of multimedia.” (Ohler, p. 44)

This article looks at students as creators of their story.

In my classroom, students did not apply storyboarding or book planning skills, but nonetheless were the writers of the “narrative” of a math problem.

A story approach allows students to connect more fully to the concepts. This article shows how my classroom activity was, in effect, a math “story” of how to measure capacity.

Jason Ohler writes that telling stories or presenting information utilizing a story approach with digital media offers the opportunity for students to organize material in a way that supports their creative abilities. In being the creators of digital text, images, and sound, students learn first-hand how media works to present information and convey messages that influence.

The author insists that it is crucial to focus first on the story (storyboarding, writing scripts, creating titles and other curriculum expectations), and use the technology after to enhance what students have learned to do. Teachers are asked to think about not only the narrative in its true form, but the “analytical report” told with a story element to it.

Ohler includes as examples a mathematical digital story that explains the geometry of a circle, and a science story that follows a character’s situation with illness, highlighting information about antibiotics and drug-resistant superbugs.

Using digital stories develops numerous thinking, reading, and writing skills.

In my classroom, we created a “story” about how we should measure capacity, from beginning to end, to find out the capacity of a container. I hadn’t thought of this type of writing as a story form, but it has changed how I can present other content information as I teach.

From ‘bored’ to screen: the use of the interactive whiteboard for literacy in six primary classrooms in England

Arthur Shenton and Linda Pagett, Literacy, 41:3, 129-136. (2007)

Interactive teaching is defined by the Department for Education and Skills (2001, p. 8;) as when ‘‘pupils’ contributions are encouraged, expected and extended’’. Smith et al. (2006, p. 443; referenced in Shenton & Pagett, 2007)

Shenton and Pagett find that “interactivity” has different connotations. It is not limited to interactivity between students and between students and teachers. This study shows that teachers using the interactive white boards saw interactivity as a function of how the students interacted with the board and its controls. They conclude that interactive whiteboards do not necessarily lead educators to teach in a more interactive way that encourages students’ contributions and extend their learning.

The article prompts reflection on how teachers are using the board. It leads educators to ask themselves, “Am I the one in control? Are my students engaged with the board as much as I am, as well as engaged with each other as they use it?”

Teachers who choose to use an interactive whiteboard need to think of it as not just a tool, but as a means of opening the dialogue between students to encourage them to think and learn in new ways, and to express that learning. Students need to be part of the lessons, contributing by using the board and talking, not just watching the demonstrations of its use.

The Interactive Whiteboard

Mark Betteney, English Four to Eleven, Issue 35 p.3-5 (Spring 2009)

“…is it the board that is interactive, and/or does the use of the board encourage an interactive style of teaching?” (Shenton & Padgett, 2007, p.130 as quoted in Betteney, 2009 p. 4)

Mark Betteney asks this question on behalf of Shenton & Pagett: What about the interactive whiteboard is good for teachers, students, or teaching in general? Critical thinking is necessary at a time when schools are adopting the whiteboard with such conviction that teaching without it is starting to be considered a throwback to the dinosaur age.

The author asks teachers to consider the purpose of the technology and to reflect if it puts students or teachers first. Do we use the interactive board without questioning how it helps students? Do we control the use of the board? Do students only interact with the board and not each other?

Betteney notes pre-service teachers tend not to ask “’How can I best teach this?; but ‘How can I best use the IWB [interactive white board] to teach this?’” (Betteney, 2009, 9. 5). It is as if the tool supersedes teaching strategy or skill.

This article makes the case for a need to balance the engagement of technology with the interaction and involvement of the students.

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Evidence of Innovation and/or Exemplary Practice

This project is innovative in the way it combines oral language, literacy practices, and technology to teach and consolidate a content area subject.

In the past literacy and content were taught as separate subject areas. However, more recently, such literacy skills as skimming, scanning text, shared reading of textbooks, and reading comprehension strategies are being applied to content area text.

The inclusion of oral language with a focus on allowing students to use digital photos as prompts to talk about their learning, and then recording their words as text to revisit, takes literacy further into the realm of content teaching and as a result, content learning.

This is a different pathway from the teacher-directed presentation of material that may or may not be relevant or contextual to students. Co-creating the learning with students through conversation, using the digital photos, brings teacher and student together in a way that is engaging and innovative.

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Other Applications (Extensions)

Possible applications to other grade levels or subject areas:

  • Gr. 5 or 6 Experiment in Science – Record photos of results of experiments and the conclusions of the students in a photo-text form (more like a photo essay than a book).
  • Gr. 2 – Intermediate Art/Literacy – Digital photos of artwork of an oral story with text to match to create a digital narrative
  • Gr. 1 – Intermediate Drama – Digital photos of a performance by students or a commercial performance with text added from student discussion to tell narrative or to express responses to the parts of the play or characters.
  • Kindergarten-Gr. 3 Writing – Create a recount of a class trip using student talk and digital photos to model recount writing.

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Impact Analysis

Student

Matching text to photos of themselves keeps student motivation and engagement high

Students are always intrigued when they see themselves in photos, especially on a large screen. The excitement at seeing themselves engaged in an activity prompts the students to recount what they did, what someone said, what happened, etc., in that moment. The students are motivated to put words to their photos, to attach text to what they did, simply because they did it. Engagement is authentic.

Students are in control of their learning. They are motivated to make decisions on how to match text to photo. They are engaged in revisiting the text, and the simple fact of reading it repeatedly heightens their understanding of the task each time.

Teacher

How does this project make a difference in how a teacher uses instructional practices, design learning, or decision making?

This project challenges teachers to think of ways to help students gain control and ownership over their learning.

By using digital photos of learning tasks and activities, students have the opportunity to re-construct their learning simply by talking about what they did, pulling all the pieces together in conversation.

This process places emphasis on students’ ability to articulate what they discovered and learned, and how they might apply their knowledge in other ways.

It encourages teachers to design activities that place children in the position of learning by orally sharing what they know. This, in turn, leads to pride of ownership in their acquisition of knowledge.

School

Impact on the school

The project has been shared by email with both Grade 1-2 and Grade 2 classrooms. After the students read the book, teachers were interested in creating a resource with their class using digital photos.

The Primary division now has a central location to use a Smart Board and the two teachers plan to use the digital book/shared writing project for challenging concepts. Working together, the teachers may create a variety of digital books that serve as additional resources for teaching and learning.

This process is ideal to share between colleagues as each class could work on a specific learning concept and then exchange their digital books.

Sharing books within the division could be as simple as emailing books to classrooms for use in similar concept lessons. Classes could use the digital text to review information from the previous grade level (Gr. 1 sharing with Gr. 2), as a springboard for their own activities, or as a new way to document their learning and then share it with the original class.

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Additional Resources

Crevola, Carmel and Vineis, Mark. (2005). Let’s Talk About It! Oral Language-Reading and Writing K-3 Guidebook for Instruction. New York, NY: Mondo Publishing.

Ministry of Education Ontario Early Reading Strategy. (2003). A Guide to Effective Instruction in Reading Kindergarten to Grade 3. Queen’s Printer for Ontario.

Prensky, Marc, (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, 9:5.

Routeman, Regie. (2000). Conversations: Strategies for Teaching, Learning and Evaluating. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

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Copyright/Paper Citation Considerations

Betteney, Mark. (2009). The Interactive Whiteboard. English Four to Eleven. 35: 3-5.

Crevola, Carmel, and Hill, Peter. (2008). Literacy Numeracy Secretariat and Self Identification Oral Language Project (LNS/SIP) Retrieved from http://www.noelonline.ca/resources/SIP2007-08Report.pdf

Hopkins, Martha H. (2007). Adapting a Model for Literacy Learning to the Learning of Mathematics. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 23:121-138.

Ohler, Jason, (2005/2006). The World of Digital Storytelling. Educational Leadership 44-47

Shenton, Arthur, & Pagett, Linda. (2007). From ‘bored’ to screen: the use of the interactive whiteboard for literacy in six primary classrooms in England. Literacy, 41:3, 129-136.

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